Ionic Cell



Ionic Cell

How the cell’s equilibrium potential are established


 Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology III


Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology III


$399


The key element of any fluorescence sensing or imaging technology is the fluorescence reporter, which transforms the information on molecular interactions and dynamics into measurable signals of fluorescence emission. This book, written by a team of frontline researchers, demonstrates the broad field of applications of fluorescence reporters, starting from nanoscopic properties of materials, such as self-assembled thin films, polymers and ionic liquids, through biological macromolecules and further to living cell, tissue and body imaging. Basic information on obtaining and interpreting experimental data is presented and recent progress in these practically important areas is highlighted. The book is addressed to a broad interdisciplinary audience.

 Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology III


Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology III


$436.93


The key element of any fluorescence sensing or imaging technology is the fluorescence reporter, which transforms the information on molecular interactions and dynamics into measurable signals of fluorescence emission. This book, written by a team of frontline researchers, demonstrates the broad field of applications of fluorescence reporters, starting from nanoscopic properties of materials, such as self-assembled thin films, polymers and ionic liquids, through biological macromolecules and further to living cell, tissue and body imaging. Basic information on obtaining and interpreting experimental data is presented and recent progress in these practically important areas is highlighted. The book is addressed to a broad interdisciplinary audience.

 Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology III


Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology III


$413.6


The key element of any fluorescence sensing or imaging technology is the fluorescence reporter, which transforms the information on molecular interactions and dynamics into measurable signals of fluorescence emission. This book, written by a team of frontline researchers, demonstrates the broad field of applications of fluorescence reporters, starting from nanoscopic properties of materials, such as self-assembled thin films, polymers and ionic liquids, through biological macromolecules and further to living cell, tissue and body imaging. Basic information on obtaining and interpreting experimental data is presented and recent progress in these practically important areas is highlighted. The book is addressed to a broad interdisciplinary audience.

 Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology III: Applications in Sensing and Imaging


Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology III: Applications in Sensing and Imaging


$399


Thekey element of any fluorescence sensing or imaging technology is the fluorescence reporter, which transforms the information on molecular interactions and dynamics into measurable signals of fluorescence emission. This book, written by a team of frontline researchers, demonstrates the broad field of applications of fluorescence reporters, starting from nanoscopic properties of materials, such as self-assembled thin films, polymers and ionic liquids, through biological macromolecules and further to living cell, tissue and body imaging. Basic information on obtaining and interpreting experimental data is presented and recent progress in these practically important areas is highlighted. The book is addressed to a broad interdisciplinary audience.

 Advanced Ionic Firm Facial Skin Care Equipment


Advanced Ionic Firm Facial Skin Care Equipment


$46.69


This skin care equipment can weaken the natural shield function of the skin temporarily by inducting ionized essence into deeper layers of the skin and making them absorb the effective nutritious components. The advanced ionic skin care equipment can quicken up the renewal of skin cells, improve metabolism, beautify skin, brighten, maintain its moisture content and prevent wrinkles. The skin care equipment offers the super ion release technology, which is perfect for facial skin care, deep massage and cell activation.

 Aggregation-Induced Emission


Aggregation-Induced Emission


$129.99


Aggregation-Induced Emission (AIE) is a novel photophysical phenomenon which offers a new platform APPLICATIONS for researchers to look into the light-emitting processes from luminogen aggregates, from which useful information on structure–property relationships may be collected and mechanistic insights may be gained. The discovery of the AIE effect opens a new avenue for the development of new luminogen materials in the aggregate or solid state. By enabling light emission in the practically useful solid state, AIE has the potential to significantly expand the technological applications of luminescent materials.Aggregation-Induced Emission: Applications is the first book to explore the high-tech applicationsof AIE luminogens, including technological utilizations of AIE materials in the areas of electroluminescence, mechanochromism, chiral recognition, ionic sensing, biomolecule detection, and cell imaging. Potential applications in room temperature phosphorescence, liquid crystals, circularly polarized luminescence, and organic lasing are also introduced in this volume.Topics covered include:AIE materials for electroluminescence applicationsLiquid crystals with AIE characteristicsMechanochromic AIE materialsChiral recognition and enantiomeric differentiation based on AIEAIE and applications of aryl-substituted pyrrole derivativesNew chemo-/biosensors with AIE-active moleculesAIE luminogens for in vivo functional bioimagingApplications of AIE materials in biotechnologyThis book is essential reading for scientists and engineers who are designing optoelectronic materials and biomedical sensors, and will also be of interest to academic researchers in materials science, physical and synthetic organic chemistry as well as physicists and biological chemists.

 Aggregation-Induced Emission


Aggregation-Induced Emission


$139.99


Aggregation-Induced Emission (AIE) is a novel photophysical phenomenon which offers a new platform APPLICATIONS for researchers to look into the light-emitting processes from luminogen aggregates, from which useful information on structure–property relationships may be collected and mechanistic insights may be gained. The discovery of the AIE effect opens a new avenue for the development of new luminogen materials in the aggregate or solid state. By enabling light emission in the practically useful solid state, AIE has the potential to significantly expand the technological applications of luminescent materials.Aggregation-Induced Emission: Applications is the first book to explore the high-tech applicationsof AIE luminogens, including technological utilizations of AIE materials in the areas of electroluminescence, mechanochromism, chiral recognition, ionic sensing, biomolecule detection, and cell imaging. Potential applications in room temperature phosphorescence, liquid crystals, circularly polarized luminescence, and organic lasing are also introduced in this volume.Topics covered include:AIE materials for electroluminescence applicationsLiquid crystals with AIE characteristicsMechanochromic AIE materialsChiral recognition and enantiomeric differentiation based on AIEAIE and applications of aryl-substituted pyrrole derivativesNew chemo-/biosensors with AIE-active moleculesAIE luminogens for in vivo functional bioimagingApplications of AIE materials in biotechnologyThis book is essential reading for scientists and engineers who are designing optoelectronic materials and biomedical sensors, and will also be of interest to academic researchers in materials science, physical and synthetic organic chemistry as well as physicists and biological chemists.

 Alimtox Rejuvenix Ionic Detox Ion Cell Foot Spa


Alimtox Rejuvenix Ionic Detox Ion Cell Foot Spa


$799


Alimtox Rejuvenix Ionic Detox Ion Cell Cleanse Foot Spa. Discover the latest technology that can promote optimum health, increase energy, enhance vitality & induce a sense of heightened well being by eliminating impurities from the body safely and easily. Can you recall the way your body felt the last time you stood next to a waterfall or walked along a beach with the waves breaking at your feet. You breathed deeper into your lungs and abdomen; your brain cleared and the pains in your joints subsided. You felt relaxed and at peace with the world. These invigorating reactions were caused by the ionization of trillions of water molecules. If you have any questions about this product please call (800)355-2956. BENEFITS:- Liver detoxification – Purge heavy metals – Increase energy and reduce stress – Internal cleansing and body purge – Improved sexual health – Significant pain relief – Improved memory and sleep – Liver, kidney and parasite cleanse – Skin problems such as wrinkles – Enhanced immune systemWHAT IS A CELL CLEANSE ION FOOT BATH?An Alimtox Ion Cell Cleanse Foot Bath is a top quality high tech detoxification system that enables the body to heal itself. Equally suitable for professional and home use, our Alimtox Ion Detoxifying Unit is very user friendly and requires no special training. It’s the perfect solution for body pollution! The Alimtox Ion Detoxifying Unit is quickly becoming one of the most popular Ion Detoxifying Unit’s in today’s market due to it’s latest technology, ease of use, effectiveness and reliability. This foot bath relaxes, cleanses, balances and enhances the bio energy of the body. Chinese medicine refers to this energy as the "chi". The complex energy fields permeate and realign the body’s energy field while improving oxygen levels. The foot bath is widely used to increase both physical and mental energy, vitality, and stamina. At the same time it also purges the body of toxins, chemicals, radiation, pollution, synthetics, and

 Analysis of Growth Factor Signaling in Embryos


Analysis of Growth Factor Signaling in Embryos


$220


Developmental biologists have been driven to investigate growth factor signaling in embryos in order to understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying a given developmental process. Thus, it is critical to explore the technical methods and experimental designs for growth factor signaling in embryos. Focusing on specific pathways or pathway components, Analysis of Growth Factor Signaling in Embryos provides the methods and guidelines for experimental design to study major aspects of cell signaling in vertebrate embryos. The book covers a broad range of topics in signaling and a variety of current model organisms. Section I explores specific signaling pathways or pathway components. In this section, some chapters highlight the biochemistry of signaling pathways during development, which is often distinctive from that observed in cell culture systems. Section II discusses ionic regulatory mechanisms and the two chapters in Section III examine ways of investigating gene regulation in response to extracellular signals. Finally, Section IV addresses emerging strategies that facilitate integrated analyses of cell signaling in vivo in embryonic systems. Featuring contributions from expert researchers, Analysis of Growth Factor Signaling in Embryos will provide a foundation for further explorations of the cellular regulatory mechanisms governing vertebrate embryonic development.

 BC Color Freeze Colored Ends (For Colour-Treated Hair) - 75ml/2.5oz


BC Color Freeze Colored Ends (For Colour-Treated Hair) – 75ml/2.5oz


$20.91


-A lightweight protective leave-in balm for color-treated color-Helps finish off the care regime & close the cuticle layer of any sensitized texture-Features a groundbreaking Color Freeze formula that seals hair s surface-Captures color pigments for long-lasting color shine-Contains liquid silk extract & Amino Cell Rebuild to prevent split ends-Infused with a special Ionic Shine Booster that adds long-lasting luster to hair-Hair appears suppler nourished & healthier looking with brilliant colorProduct Line: Schwarzkopf – Bonacure Color FreezeProduct Size: 75ml/2.5oz

 Biochemistry Study Guide: Enzymes, Membranes And Transport, Energy Pathways, Signal Transduction, Cellular Respiration, Glycolysis, Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle & More (Mobi Study Guides)


Biochemistry Study Guide: Enzymes, Membranes And Transport, Energy Pathways, Signal Transduction, Cellular Respiration, Glycolysis, Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle & More (Mobi Study Guides)


$10.42


Biochemistry Study GuideAudience: Intended for everyone interested in Biochemistry, particularly undergraduate and graduate life science students.FEATURES:- Fully illustrated- Complete lists of amino acids, functional groups, chemical classes. – IUPAC nomenclature – Periodic Table – Navigate from Table of Contents or search for the words or phrases- Use your down time to prepare for an exam. – Always have the guide available for a quick reference. TABLE OF CONTENTS:Chapters: I. Biomolecules II. Chemical Properties III. Structural Compounds IV. Enzymes V. Membranes And Transport VI. Energy Pathways VII. Signal Transduction VIII. TechniquesAppendices: General Index Common Atoms Hydrocarbons Standard Amino Acids Functional groups Chemical classes IUPAC nomenclature Periodic TableI. BiomoleculesCarbohydrates: Monosaccharides Sugar Disaccharide Oligosaccharide Polysaccharide Starch Glycogen GluconeogenesisLipids: Fatty Acids Fatty Acid Degradation Fatty Acid Synthesis Triglyceride Waxes Lipoprotein Phospholipids CholesterolNucleic acids: DNA DNA replication Mitochondrial DNA RNA mRNA tRNA Non-coding RNA siRNA RNA Degradation Codon Adenin Cytosine Guanine Thymine Uracil OligonucleotidesProteins: Amino acid Peptide Primary structure Secondary structure Tertiary structure Protein folding Protein DegradationII. Chemical PropertiesBonds: Covalent Non-covalent Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Van der Waals attractions Hydrophobic forcesHydrophilicity: Hydrophilic Hydrophobic PolaritypH: pH Acid Alkaline BaseRedox: Reduction and oxidation Citric acid cycle HydrolysisIII. Structural CompoundsIn cells: Actin Intermediate filament Microtubule Flagellin Peptidoglycan Myelin MyosinIn animals: Chitin Keratin Collagen SilkIn plants: Cellulose Lignin Cell wallIV. EnzymesEnzymes: Etymology and history 3D Structure Thermodynamics Kinetics Inhibition Metabolic pathways and allosteric enzymes Enzyme-naming conventionsExamples: Ubiquitin Kinase Dehydrogenase ProteasomeV. Membranes And TransportStru

 Biochemistry Study Guide: Enzymes, Membranes And Transport, Energy Pathways, Signal Transduction, Cellular Respiration, Glycolysis, Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle & More (Mobi Study Guides)


Biochemistry Study Guide: Enzymes, Membranes And Transport, Energy Pathways, Signal Transduction, Cellular Respiration, Glycolysis, Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle & More (Mobi Study Guides)


$9.99


Biochemistry Study GuideAudience: Intended for everyone interested in Biochemistry, particularly undergraduate and graduate life science students.FEATURES:- Fully illustrated- Complete lists of amino acids, functional groups, chemical classes. – IUPAC nomenclature – Periodic Table – Navigate from Table of Contents or search for the words or phrases- Use your down time to prepare for an exam. – Always have the guide available for a quick reference. TABLE OF CONTENTS:Chapters: I. Biomolecules II. Chemical Properties III. Structural Compounds IV. Enzymes V. Membranes And Transport VI. Energy Pathways VII. Signal Transduction VIII. TechniquesAppendices: General Index Common Atoms Hydrocarbons Standard Amino Acids Functional groups Chemical classes IUPAC nomenclature Periodic TableI. BiomoleculesCarbohydrates: Monosaccharides Sugar Disaccharide Oligosaccharide Polysaccharide Starch Glycogen GluconeogenesisLipids: Fatty Acids Fatty Acid Degradation Fatty Acid Synthesis Triglyceride Waxes Lipoprotein Phospholipids CholesterolNucleic acids: DNA DNA replication Mitochondrial DNA RNA mRNA tRNA Non-coding RNA siRNA RNA Degradation Codon Adenin Cytosine Guanine Thymine Uracil OligonucleotidesProteins: Amino acid Peptide Primary structure Secondary structure Tertiary structure Protein folding Protein DegradationII. Chemical PropertiesBonds: Covalent Non-covalent Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Van der Waals attractions Hydrophobic forcesHydrophilicity: Hydrophilic Hydrophobic PolaritypH: pH Acid Alkaline BaseRedox: Reduction and oxidation Citric acid cycle HydrolysisIII. Structural CompoundsIn cells: Actin Intermediate filament Microtubule Flagellin Peptidoglycan Myelin MyosinIn animals: Chitin Keratin Collagen SilkIn plants: Cellulose Lignin Cell wallIV. EnzymesEnzymes: Etymology and history 3D Structure Thermodynamics Kinetics Inhibition Metabolic pathways and allosteric enzymes Enzyme-naming conventionsExamples: Ubiquitin Kinase Dehydrogenase ProteasomeV. Membranes And TransportStru

 Cal-Mag Liquid


Cal-Mag Liquid


$20.38


Calcium/Magnesium Dietary Supplement with Fulvic Minerals 30 Day Supply Experience the superior absorption of a powerful bone building formula Fulvic ionic mineral base Proper healthy balance of Calcium and Magnesium Low glycemic – diabetic friendly Sweetened with healthy Xylitol Gluten free – No crystalline fructose Powerful alkalizer Essential Co-factors: Phosphorous, Vitamin D3 Featuring the Bone Builder Calcium (Microcrystalline Calcium Hydroxyapatate) All calcium?s are Not alike Cal-Mag Liquid contains the magic ingredient other formulas don’t have…Fulvic. The body’s ability to utilize calcium properly is directly related to how well it is able to pass through cell membranes. Fulvic carries minerals right through cell membranes with ease. The more nutrients reaching cells, the better the results. To further assure the highest possible uptake, Cal-Mag Liquid features all-natural MCHC, Microcrystalline Calcium Hydroxyapatite Compound, an extract from organic bone material. It is known as the Bone Builder because this natural form is more readily utilized by the body. The prolonged effects of MCHC make it unique in that it helps prevent further bone loss, as well as restoring mineral content to bones. Plus, natural MCMC contains Type 1 and Type 5 cartilage, and glycosaminoglycans, crucial components for connective tissues. Vital Earth’s non-synthetic MCHC retains all the natural, highly absorbable components of organic bone matrix, unlike synthetic Hydroxyapatite that originates from rocks, or the less expensive, highly processed version known as Bone Meal. A consistent daily program that supports building strong bones will directly affect bone density as you age. Cal-Mag Liquid helps assure you’re providing your body with a superior supply of high quality, high absorption calcium and magnesium.Vitamin D3 (As Cholecalciferol) (800 IU), Calcium (Proprietary Blend: Calcium Triphosphate, Calcium Citrate, Calcium Gluconate, Calcium Glycerophosphate, Calcium La

 Calcium 19 oz by Eidon Ionic Minerals


Calcium 19 oz by Eidon Ionic Minerals


$20.73


Calcium, the most plentiful mineral found in the human body ideally comprises 1.5 to 2% of an adult’s total body weight. Every cell and organ in the body depends on calcium for proper functioning. Teeth and bones contain the majority of the body’s calcium (about 99%). Calcium’s primary function is in the development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. Of equal importance though is calcium’s role in digestion, blood clotting, wound healing, nerve signal transmission digestion and o

 Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic


Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic


$416.54


Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology is intended for the clinical cardiologist who wishes to refresh or deepen his understanding of the cellular basis of cardiac electrophysiology, for researchers interested in the basis of the electrical activity of the heart, such as clinical investigators, physiologists or pharmacologists, for teachers in physiology, pharmacology and other biomedical studies, and for medical students from graduate to postgraduate level. Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology starts with a primer of basic electrophysiology, the cardiac action potential and the physiological basis of the electrocardiogram. Our second aim after having introduced the basic concepts was to continue with giving an overview of the properties of the most important ionic currents in the heart, and to treat their modulation, in order to deal with the mechanisms underlying cardiac ischaemia, arrhythmias and remodelling. Edward Carmeliet and Johan Vereecke, Katholieke University Leuven, Belgium, have collaborated for over 30 years in cardiac electrophysiology research. Their studies include the genesis of the normal action potential, its changes in ischaemia, the effect of drugs, and the mechanism of arrhythmias, using techniques from the classic potential registration with intracellular microelectrodes to whole cell clamp and single channel measurements. *Author: Carmeliet, Edward/ Vereecke, Johan/ Vereecke, J. *Series Title: Basic Science for the Cardiologist *Series Number: 9 *Binding Type: Hardcover *Number of Pages: 432 *Publication Date: 2001/11/30 *Language: English *Dimensions: 9.21 x 6.14 x 1.06 inches

 Cell Balancer 4 fl oz


Cell Balancer 4 fl oz


$28.95


Cell Balancer is an all-natural proprietary formulation of Fulvic Acid bonded with over 70 Ocean-Derived Ionic Trace Minerals, Preservative-Free Organic Aloe Vera and Malic Acid.

 Cellfood Liquid Concentrate, 1-Ounce Bottle by Lumina Cell Food


Cellfood Liquid Concentrate, 1-Ounce Bottle by Lumina Cell Food


$31.25


World’s #1 Selling Oxygen and Nutrients SupplementCELLFOOD is a proprietary ionic formula that contains 78 ionic minerals, 34 enzymes, 17 amino acids, electrolytes and dissolved oxygen and utilizes a unique water-splitting technology. It provides an unsurpassed oxygen and nutrient delivery system, and is absorbed quickly and efficiently by every cell in the body. Cellfood’s unique structure oxygenates and feeds the cells cleaning and tuning up the body’s systems throughout the day. Cellfood is made from all-natural plant substances, and is yeast-free and gluten-free.It’s been said that all forms of illness can be traced to two basic causes: too many toxins in the body and too few nutrients reaching the cells. Cellfood is the only product that addresses these two vital health issues at the same time, and with remarkable thoroughness.Cellfood is created by a proprietary nine month process in which these all-natural nutrient-rich plant substances are held in a negatively-charged suspension of deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen). The result is a remarkable formulation which by utilizing the same technology used decades ago to split the atom actually ‘dissociates’ (splits) water molecules within the body by weakening the bonding electrons, and gives birth to cascades of vital, life-giving oxygen. This newly-born oxygen, combined with an array of vital nutrients, is carried to every cell in the body cleaning, toning and building the cells and tissues hour after hour, day after day. Since our bodies are over two-thirds water, this oxygen and hydrogen source is virtually unlimited.

 Copper 19 oz by Eidon Ionic Minerals


Copper 19 oz by Eidon Ionic Minerals


$20.73


Copper Ionic Mineral by Eidon 19 oz. Liquid Copper is essential for both iron and zinc utilization as well as for maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system. Copper along with iron is necessary to produce hemoglobin (the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen from the lungs to all the cells in the body). Copper is necessary for normal development and maintenance of blood bone nerves connective and other tissues. A deficiency of this essential trace mineral can cause a variety of disorders. Copper parallels iron. Iron is the essential element in hemoglobin. But without copper iron is not transported correctly throughout the body. Iron depends upon copper to become part of the red blood cells therefore anemia results from a lack of iron and copper. The body just can’t metabolize iron without the help it gets from copper. As blood levels of copper drop iron absorption decreases red blood cell production is inhibited and anemia develops. Supplementation of both iron and copper.

 Dual LCD Ionic Detox Foot Spa Bath Cleanse Ion Infrared


Dual LCD Ionic Detox Foot Spa Bath Cleanse Ion Infrared


$274.98


Your HEALTHandMED Foot Bath System Includes: *3 Months Free Detox Consultation. *Free health assessment. *Two 304-type stainless steel ion activating arrays with 10 double coils of steel(40-60 uses each) *Two Bamboo charcoal FAR Infrared waist belts *TWO LCD Screens – no more toggling back and forth during a two-person session *Carrying Case for Dual Ionic Detox Machine, Arrays and Other Accessories – Simplifies transport of your system from house to house or business to business *Two wrist straps *Tube of conductive wrist strap gel *Long Power cord * Operating Instructions written by HEALTHandMED *14 Page Booklet with protocols, best practices and background info on ionic detox *Warranty covering defects in material and workmanship for one year What Makes This Ionic Foot Bath Better Than All the Others? 1)Two systems in one-two people can enjoy the experience of detoxifying together 2)Far Infrared Therapy Function – Two great therapies in one! During foot detox sessions, you can also use the FIR belt to relieve muscle aches, increase the cell’s activities and accelerate blood circulation. FIR belt may also be used independent of ionic detox. 3)Powerful-operates at 100 Watts, 15 Volts and 1.0 – 2.5 Amps 4)User friendly — includes a treatment time control and ion intensity control. 5)Operates from 220 volt and 110 volt power sources (can use worldwide) 6)Safe to operate.

 Effects of electric field on the functions of cell membrane proteins.


Effects of electric field on the functions of cell membrane proteins.


$69


The most important and most common channels on cell membrane are voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels. In so-called “excitable cells” like neurons and muscle cells, these channels open or close in response to changes in potential across the membrane in order to accomplish muscle contraction and transmit signals. By controlling the membrane potential, we observe extraordinary inactivation behaviors of the voltage-gated Na+ channels and the voltage-gated delayed rectifier K+ channels, which shows that electric stimulation pulses can temporarily close the Na+ and K+ channels, just as drugs, like tetrodotoxin (TTX) and tetraethylammonium (ETA), do. The Na/K pump is essential for living system and is expressed in virtually all cell membranes. The ionic transport conducted by Na/K pumps creates both an electrical and a chemical gradient across the plasma membrane, which are required for maintaining membrane potentials, cell volume, and secondary active transport of other solutes, etc. We use a pulsed, symmetric, oscillating membrane potential with a frequency close to the mean physiological turnover rate across the cell membrane to synchronize Na/K pump molecules. The pump molecules can work as a group, pumping at a synchronized pace after a long train of pulses. As a result, the pump functions can be significantly increased. After the pump molecules are synchronized, the applied electric-field frequency can gradually increase in order to resynchronize the molecules to a new, higher frequency. Modulating the pump molecules to a higher frequency leads to a significant increase of pump current. Synchronization and modulation of pump molecules can become a new method to study the function of Na/K pump molecules. This method has huge potential applications in clinic medical treatment. After single-fiber-level study, the final project is on organ level, the rat kidney, by using synchronization and modulation of Na/K pump molecules on the proximal tubule membrane. Because Na+
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